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Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize|Concepts Biology Exam 4 Flashcards | Quizlet


Which of the following is an example of countercurrent ...


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Two tubes have a liquid flowing in the same direction.Fortunately, fish have evolved a clever way to overcome their oxygen-deprived environment through their highly specialized gills.The rows of gill filaments have many protrusions called gill lamellae.

A buffer liquid between typically the incoming and outgoing tubes receives the concentrated material.B, because the counter current ensures that the concentration gradient between oxygen in the water and oxygen in the fish is very steep, and the fishy wishy gets enough O2.Fish from multiple groups can live out of the water for extended time periods.

The maximum amount of oxygen that the blood could pick up would be only half of the total amount of oxygen in the water.It also enables the seabirds to remove the excess salt entering your body when eating, swimming or diving in the sea for food.

The spiracle is thought to be homologous to the ear opening in higher vertebrates.The result is thermal equilibrium: Both fluids end up at about the same temperature: 40.In cocurrent exchange the initial gradient is higher but falls off quickly, leading to wasted potential.

As the cocurrent and countercurrent exchange mechanisms diagram showed, a cocurrent exchange system has a variable gradient over the length of the exchanger.Various substances are passed from your liquid entering the nephrons until exiting the cycle (See the nephron circulation diagram).It just shows that fish are truly masters at breathing.

Oxygen would quickly pass from the water into the blood, until the oxygen levels of the blood and water rapidly became the same, and oxygen diffusion into the blood would stop.In some species cutaneous respiration accounts for 5 to 40 percent of the total respiration, depending on temperature.



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In some primitive bony fishes and amphibians, the larvae bear external gills, branching off from the gill arches.The shared trait of breathing via gills in bony fish and cartilaginous fish is a famous example of symplesiomorphy.This is very important for fish becaus of the low oxygen concentration within water.

This draws fresh water directly into their mouths to move over their gills plus out their gill slits.The operculum can be important in adjusting the pressure of water inside of the pharynx to allow proper ventilation of the gills, so that bony fish do not have to rely on ram ventilation (and hence near constant motion) to breathe.Even more up the loop there is a continued flow of water out of the pipe and into the barrier, gradually raising the attention of NaCl in typically the tube until it extends to 1199.


The end of the loop provides the highest concentration associated with salt (NaCl) in the incoming tube—in the instance 1199.The particular warm arterial blood transfers most of its temperature towards the cool venous blood now coming in coming from the outside.This flow pattern ensures that as the blood progresses through the gills and gains oxygen from the water, it encounters increasingly fresh water with a higher oxygen concentration that is able to continuously offload oxygen into the blood.

As these fluids flow past one another, they create a temperature gradient in which temperature is transferred and stored inside the body.Countercurrent exchange means the flow of water over the gills is in the opposite direction to the flow of blood through the capillaries in the lamellae.



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Some amphibians retain the external larval gills in adulthood, the complex internal gill system as seen in fish apparently being irrevocably lost very early in the evolution of tetrapods.As you move along the lamella, the water is slightly less saturated and blood slightly more but the water still has more oxygen in it so it diffuses from water to blood.The tube leading to the loop passively building up a gradient of heat (or cooling) or solvent concentration while the returning tube has a constant small pumping action all along it, so that a gradual intensification of the heat or concentration is created towards the loop.

Mammalian kidneys use countercurrent exchange to remove water through urine so the entire body can retain water utilized to move the nitrogenous waste products (see countercurrent multiplier).In some cases, the openings may be fused together, effectively forming an operculum.Even as the blood reaches the end of the lamella and is 80% or so saturated with oxygen, it is flowing past water which is at the beginning of the lamella and is 90 or 100% saturated.

The maximum amount of oxygen that the blood could pick up would be only half of the total amount of oxygen in the water.Typically the active transport pumps only need to overcome a regular and low gradient regarding concentration, because of typically the countercurrent multiplier mechanism.The property transferred could be heat, concentration of a chemical substance, or other properties of the flow.

In some cases, the openings may be fused together, effectively forming an operculum.Drinking water passes because of a new small osmotic pressure to the buffer liquid within this example at 3 hundred.This is, however, often greatly reduced, consisting of a small mass of cells without any remaining gill-like structure.

As a result the gills can extract over 80% of the oxygen available in the water.Initially the countercurrent exchange device and its properties have been proposed in 1951 simply by professor Werner Kuhn and a pair of his former college students who called the device found in the Loop of Henle in mammalian kidneys a Countercurrent multiplier and confirmed by clinical findings in 1958 by simply Professor Carl W.Study 15 Terms Biology Flashcards Quizlet.

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